Historical Overview of the United Nations Organization
The name we all know as “United Nations” was first coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
Meanwhile, on 24 October 1945, The United Nations officially comes into existence when representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944.
The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.
this declaration was actually preceded by many other incidences such as: The Declaration of St. James’ Palace on 12 June 1941, the 1943 Moscow and Teheran Conference, The Atlantic Charter of 14 August 1941, the 1944-1945 Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta, The Declaration of the United Nationson 1 January 1942 and the host of them.
The International Telecommunication Union founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union was the first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. And the Universal Postal Union was was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies.
Also In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902.
The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles “to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security.” The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.
The United Nations of Today
The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States. The mission and work of the United Nations are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter.
There are six official languages of the UN. These are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The correct interpretation and translation of these six languages, in both spoken and written form, is very important to the work of the Organization, because this enables clear and concise communication on issues of global importance.
Organs of the United Nations
The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat. All were established in 1945 when the UN was founded.
1. General Assembly
The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policy making and representative organ of the UN. All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation. Each year, in September, the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly session, and general debate, which many heads of state attend and address. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority. The General Assembly, each year, elects a GA President to serve a one-year term of office.
2. Security Council
The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members). Each Member has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. The Security Council has a Presidency, which rotates, and changes, every month. Daily programme of work of the Security Council Subsidiary organs of the Security Council
3. Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals. It serves as the central mechanism for activities of the UN system and its specialized agencies in the economic, social and environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies. It has 54 Members, elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. It is the United Nations’ central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development.
4. Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 by the UN Charter, under Chapter XIII, to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories that had been placed under the administration of seven Member States, and ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1 November 1994. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required — by its decision or the decision of its President, or at the request of a majority of its members or the General Assembly or the Security Council.
5. International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its seat is at the Peace Palace in the Hague (Netherlands). It is the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations not located in New York (United States of America). The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
The Secretariat comprises the Secretary-General and tens of thousands of international UN staff members who carry out the day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organization’s other principal organs. The Secretary-General is chief administrative officer of the Organization, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term. UN staff members are recruited internationally and locally, and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world. But serving the cause of peace in a violent world is a dangerous occupation. Since the founding of the United Nations, hundreds of brave men and women have given their lives in its service.
WHAT IS MODEL UNITED NATIONS AND HOW DOES IT WORK
Model United Nations is an extra-curricular activity and Educational simulation of the United Nations where students step into the shoes of the world leaders to role-play the Ambassadors of the UN member states and attempt to solve real world issues – Climate Change, Discrimination, Terrorism and cyber security – using the policies and perspectives of those individual member State/Country they represent.
Model UN provides students, with a credible and authentic platform to put forth their thoughts, beliefs, ideas and aspirations in a professional and diplomatic format just as its been happened on the floor of the United Nations.
To better understand how Model United Nations works, students must read very extensively about United nations and its various organs
Knowledge of the following segments are inevitable for effective and successful MUNing.
1. Coneference: Model UN ia all about attending and organizing conferences. More than 400 Conferences are been organized around the world. students are free to choose any of the conferences and attend
2. Debate: The primary activity at any MUN conference is debate. The flow of debates usually begins with Roll call, Agenda Setting, Debating, closing the debate, and Voting procedures. Delegates formally or informally debate amongst themselves at the conference using the already laid down debate procedures. Each delegate takes on with the policies and perspectives of her/his country of representation
3. Resolution: Resolution is the final results of the discussion, writing and negotiation after the debate and voting. Resolutions, which are drafted by delegates and voted on by the committee, normally require a simple majority to pass (except in the Security Council). Only Security Council resolutions can compel nations to take action. All other UN bodies use resolutions to make recommendations or suggestions for future action.Delegates will be writing a document called a Resolution in committee along with other countries that they will be working with. It’s important to know the resolution format and phrases, but most conferences do not allow pre-written resolutions since they want countries to collaborate together during the committee. Click here to learn how to Write a Resolution
4. Diplomatic Terms: Like every other professions, Diplomatic Mission has its terminologies, the knowledge of which is inevitable for any diplomatic students. Click here or here for the glossary of deplomatic terminologies arranged in alphabetical order alongside their appropriate explanations